⌚ Boston Smallpox Research Paper

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Boston Smallpox Research Paper



Boston Smallpox Research Paper cause of Boston Smallpox Research Paper from smallpox is not clear, but the Boston Smallpox Research Paper 9-11 Reflection now known to involve multiple organs. Archived from Boston Smallpox Research Paper original on Boston Smallpox Research Paper June This is fascinating. Such a simple prick of a needle, however, is controversial; sparking Patient Centered Model debate as to the whether or not vaccinations are Boston Smallpox Research Paper. British Journal of Boston Smallpox Research Paper. Pallen Boston Smallpox Research Paper

History of smallpox

Indeed, examining and treating female organs was widely considered offensive and unsavory. But his interest in treating women changed when he was asked to help a patient who had fallen off a horse and was suffering from pelvic and back pain. He positioned her on all fours, leaning forward, and then used his fingers to help him see inside. This discovery helped him develop the precursor to the modern speculum: the bent handle of a pewter spoon.

From his examination, Sims could see that the patient had a vesicovaginal fistula. With no known cure for the ailment, Sims began experimenting in with surgical techniques to treat such fistulas. During the procedure, patients were completely naked and asked to perch on their knees and bend forward onto their elbows so their heads rested on their hands. Lucy endured an hour-long surgery, screaming and crying out in pain, as nearly a dozen other doctors watched.

Afterward, he began to practice on white women, using anesthesia, which was new to the medical field at the time. Sims also believed that African Americans were less intelligent than white people, and thought it was because their skulls grew too quickly around their brain. The medical community debated his methods, and some of his white colleagues even openly objected to his experiments, saying he took things too far. Marion Sims continues to loom large in the medical field, celebrated as a medical trailblazer. Statues were erected to him in, among other places, New York City's Central Park, the South Carolina statehouse and outside his old medical school, Jefferson University, in Philadelphia.

After several years of activism, the Philadelphia statue was moved into storage and the statue in Central Park was removed on April 17, Its plaque was to be replaced by one that educates the public on the origins of the monument and the controversial, non-consensual medical experiments Sims used on women of color. It's a recognition some see as overdue. John A. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! Twice a week we compile our most fascinating features and deliver them straight to you.

Live TV. There are side effects and risks associated with the smallpox vaccine. In the past, about 1 out of 1, people vaccinated for the first time experienced serious, but non-life-threatening, reactions, including toxic or allergic reaction at the site of the vaccination erythema multiforme , spread of the vaccinia virus to other parts of the body, and other individuals. Potentially life-threatening reactions occurred in 14 to people out of every 1 million people vaccinated for the first time. Based on past experience, it is estimated that 1 or 2 people in 1 million 0.

Given these risks, as smallpox became effectively eradicated and the number of naturally occurring cases fell below the number of vaccine-induced illnesses and deaths, routine childhood vaccination was discontinued in the United States in and was abandoned in most European countries in the early s. By , routine vaccination had ceased in all countries. Smallpox vaccination within three days of exposure will prevent or significantly lessen the severity of smallpox symptoms in the vast majority of people.

Vaccination four to seven days after exposure can offer some protection from disease or may modify the severity of the disease. Flat and hemorrhagic types of smallpox are treated with the same therapies used to treat shock , such as fluid resuscitation. People with semi-confluent and confluent types of smallpox may have therapeutic issues similar to patients with extensive skin burns. In July , the Food and Drug Administration approved tecovirimat , the first drug approved for treatment of smallpox. The drug must be administered intravenously , and may cause serious kidney toxicity.

ACAM is a smallpox vaccine developed by Acambis. It was approved for use in the United States by the U. FDA on August 31, It contains live vaccinia virus, cloned from the same strain used in an earlier vaccine , Dryvax. While the Dryvax virus was cultured in the skin of calves and freeze-dried, ACAMs virus is cultured in kidney epithelial cells Vero cells from an African green monkey. Efficacy and adverse reaction incidence are similar to Dryvax. In June , brincidofovir was approved for medical use in the United States for the treatment of human smallpox disease caused by variola virus. Hemorrhagic and flat types have the highest fatality rates. In fatal cases of ordinary smallpox, death usually occurs between days of the illness.

The cause of death from smallpox is not clear, but the infection is now known to involve multiple organs. Circulating immune complexes , overwhelming viremia, or an uncontrolled immune response may be contributing factors. The cause of death in early hemorrhagic cases is commonly due to heart failure and pulmonary edema. In late hemorrhagic cases, high and sustained viremia, severe platelet loss and poor immune response were often cited as causes of death.

Complications of smallpox arise most commonly in the respiratory system and range from simple bronchitis to fatal pneumonia. Respiratory complications tend to develop on about the eighth day of the illness and can be either viral or bacterial in origin. Secondary bacterial infection of the skin is a relatively uncommon complication of smallpox. When this occurs, the fever usually remains elevated.

Pustules can form on the eyelid, conjunctiva , and cornea , leading to complications such as conjunctivitis , keratitis , corneal ulcer , iritis , iridocyclitis , and atrophy of the optic nerve. Hemorrhagic smallpox can cause subconjunctival and retinal hemorrhages. Bony lesions are symmetrical, most common in the elbows, legs, and characteristically cause separation of the epiphysis and marked periosteal reactions. Swollen joints limit movement, and arthritis may lead to limb deformities, ankylosis , malformed bones, flail joints, and stubby fingers.

The earliest credible clinical evidence of smallpox is found in the descriptions of smallpox-like disease in medical writings from ancient India as early as BCE , [70] [71] and China BCE , [72] as well as a study of the Egyptian mummy of Ramses V , who died more than years ago BCE. Smallpox was probably introduced into China during the 1st century CE from the southwest, and in the 6th century was carried from China to Japan. In India, the Hindu goddess of smallpox, Shitala , was worshipped in temples throughout the country. A different viewpoint is that smallpox emerged CE and the earlier reported cases were incorrectly identified as smallpox.

The timing of the arrival of smallpox in Europe and south-western Asia is less clear. Smallpox is not clearly described in either the Old or New Testaments of the Bible or in the literature of the Greeks or Romans. While some have identified the Plague of Athens — which was said to have originated in " Ethiopia " and Egypt — or the plague that lifted Carthage's BCE siege of Syracuse — with smallpox, [3] many scholars agree it is very unlikely such a serious disease as variola major would have escaped being described by Hippocrates if it had existed in the Mediterranean region during his lifetime.

While the Antonine Plague that swept through the Roman Empire in — CE may have been caused by smallpox, [78] Saint Nicasius of Rheims became the patron saint of smallpox victims for having supposedly survived a bout in , [3] and Saint Gregory of Tours recorded a similar outbreak in France and Italy in , the first use of the term variola. However, smallpox had not become established there until the population growth and mobility marked by the Crusades allowed it to do so.

By the 16th century, smallpox had become entrenched across most of Europe, [3] where it had a mortality rate as high as 30 percent. This endemic occurrence of smallpox in Europe is of particular historical importance, as successive exploration and colonization by Europeans tended to spread the disease to other nations. By the 16th century, smallpox had become a predominant cause of morbidity and mortality throughout much of the world. There were no credible descriptions of smallpox-like disease in the Americas before the westward exploration by Europeans in the 15th century CE. Because the native Amerindian population had no acquired immunity to this new disease, their peoples were decimated by epidemics.

Such disruption and population losses were an important factor in the Spanish achieving conquest of the Aztecs and the Incas. By the midth century, smallpox was a major endemic disease everywhere in the world except in Australia and small islands untouched by outside exploration. In 18th century Europe, smallpox was a leading cause of death, killing an estimated , Europeans each year. Improved vaccines and the practice of re-vaccination led to a substantial reduction in cases in Europe and North America, but smallpox remained almost unchecked everywhere else in the world.

By the midth century, variola minor occurred along with variola major , in varying proportions, in many parts of Africa. Patients with variola minor experience only a mild systemic illness, are often ambulant throughout the course of the disease, and are therefore able to more easily spread disease. Infection with v. Thus, as v. People would then develop a mild case of the disease and from then on were immune to it.

The technique did have a 0. Two reports on the Chinese practice of inoculation were received by the Royal Society in London in ; one by Dr. An early mention of the possibility of smallpox's eradication was made in reference to the work of Johnnie Notions , a self-taught inoculator from Shetland , Scotland. Notions found success in treating people from at least the late s through a method devised by himself despite having no formal medical background. The English physician Edward Jenner demonstrated the effectiveness of cowpox to protect humans from smallpox in , after which various attempts were made to eliminate smallpox on a regional scale. In Russia in , the first child to receive this treatment was bestowed the name "Vaccinov" by Catherine the Great, and was educated at the expense of the nation.

John Clinch , boyhood friend and medical colleague of Jenner. Congress passed the Vaccine Act of to ensure that safe smallpox vaccine would be available to the American public. By about , a very solid state vaccination program existed in the Dutch East Indies. In British India a program was launched to propagate smallpox vaccination, through Indian vaccinators, under the supervision of European officials.

The British government introduced compulsory smallpox vaccination by an Act of Parliament in In the United States, from to , first Massachusetts and then other states required smallpox vaccination. Although some disliked these measures, [72] coordinated efforts against smallpox went on, and the disease continued to diminish in the wealthy countries. In Northern Europe a number of countries had eliminated smallpox by , and by , the incidence in most industrialized countries had decreased to comparatively low levels. Vaccination continued in industrialized countries as protection against reintroduction until the mid to late s.

Australia and New Zealand are two notable exceptions; neither experienced endemic smallpox and never vaccinated widely, relying instead on protection by distance and strict quarantines. The first hemisphere -wide effort to eradicate smallpox was made in by the Pan American Health Organization. Overall, the progress towards eradication was disappointing, especially in Africa and in the Indian subcontinent. In an international team, the Smallpox Eradication Unit, was formed under the leadership of an American, Donald Henderson. In the early s, an estimated 50 million cases of smallpox occurred in the world each year.

The key to this strategy was the monitoring of cases in a community known as surveillance and containment. The initial problem the WHO team faced was inadequate reporting of smallpox cases, as many cases did not come to the attention of the authorities. The fact that humans are the only reservoir for smallpox infection and that carriers did not exist, played a significant role in the eradication of smallpox. The WHO established a network of consultants who assisted countries in setting up surveillance and containment activities.

Early on, donations of vaccine were provided primarily by the Soviet Union and the United States, but by , more than 80 percent of all vaccine was produced in developing countries. The last major European outbreak of smallpox was in in Yugoslavia , after a pilgrim from Kosovo returned from the Middle East, where he had contracted the virus. The epidemic infected people, causing 35 deaths. Authorities declared martial law , enforced quarantine, and undertook widespread re-vaccination of the population, enlisting the help of the WHO.

In two months, the outbreak was over. By the end of , smallpox persisted only in the Horn of Africa. Conditions were very difficult in Ethiopia and Somalia, where there were few roads. Civil war, famine, and refugees made the task even more difficult. An intensive surveillance and containment and vaccination program was undertaken in these countries in early and mid, under the direction of Australian microbiologist Frank Fenner.

As the campaign neared its goal, Fenner and his team played an important role in verifying eradication. The global eradication of smallpox was certified, based on intense verification activities, by a commission of eminent scientists on 9 December and subsequently endorsed by the World Health Assembly on 8 May Having considered the development and results of the global program on smallpox eradication initiated by WHO in and intensified since … Declares solemnly that the world and its peoples have won freedom from smallpox, which was a most devastating disease sweeping in epidemic form through many countries since earliest time, leaving death, blindness and disfigurement in its wake and which only a decade ago was rampant in Africa, Asia and South America.

Roughly a third came from the developed world, which had largely eradicated smallpox decades earlier. The United States, the largest contributor to the program, has reportedly recouped that investment every 26 days since in money not spent on vaccinations and the costs of incidence. The last case of smallpox in the world occurred in an outbreak in the United Kingdom in Although it has remained unclear how Parker became infected, the source of the infection was established to be the smallpox virus grown for research purposes at the Medical School laboratory.

WHO first recommended destruction of the virus in and later set the date of destruction to be 30 December This was postponed to 30 June On July 1, , six sealed glass vials of smallpox dated , along with sample vials of other pathogens, were discovered in a cold storage room in an FDA laboratory at the National Institutes of Health location in Bethesda, Maryland. The smallpox vials were subsequently transferred to the custody of the CDC in Atlanta, where virus taken from at least two vials proved viable in culture. Although the scientists performed the research to help development of new vaccines as well as trace smallpox's history, the possibility of the techniques being used for nefarious purposes was immediately recognized, raising questions on dual use research and regulations.

In September , the Russian lab housing smallpox samples experienced a gas explosion that injured one worker. It did not occur near the virus storage area, and no samples were compromised, but the incident prompted a review of risks to containment. As described by historians, "there is no doubt that British military authorities approved of attempts to spread smallpox among the enemy", and "it was deliberate British policy to infect the Indians with smallpox". I hope it will have the desired effect.

There are also accounts that smallpox was used as a weapon during the American Revolutionary War — Ian and Jennifer Glynn, in The life and death of smallpox , confirm that bottles of "variolous matter" were carried to Australia for use as a vaccine, but think it unlikely the virus could have survived till Carus, an expert in biological weapons, has written that there is circumstantial evidence that smallpox was deliberately introduced to the Aboriginal population.

He also suggested that all c. In the Soviet Union established a smallpox weapons factory in the city of Zagorsk , 75 km to the northeast of Moscow. General Prof. Peter Burgasov, former Chief Sanitary Physician of the Soviet Army and a senior researcher within the Soviet program of biological weapons , described the incident:. On Vozrozhdeniya Island in the Aral Sea , the strongest recipes of smallpox were tested. Suddenly I was informed that there were mysterious cases of mortalities in Aralsk.

A research ship of the Aral fleet came to within 15 km of the island it was forbidden to come any closer than 40 km. The lab technician of this ship took samples of plankton twice a day from the top deck. The smallpox formulation — gr. After returning home to Aralsk, she infected several people including children. All of them died. I suspected the reason for this and called the Chief of General Staff of the Ministry of Defense and requested to forbid the stop of the Alma-Ata —Moscow train in Aralsk. As a result, the epidemic around the country was prevented. I called Andropov , who at that time was Chief of KGB, and informed him of the exclusive recipe of smallpox obtained on Vozrazhdenie Island.

Others contend that the first patient may have contracted the disease while visiting Uyaly or Komsomolsk-on-Ustyurt , two cities where the boat docked. Responding to international pressures, in the Soviet government allowed a joint U. The inspectors were met with evasion and denials from the Soviet scientists and were eventually ordered out of the facility. Alibek's stories about the former Soviet program's smallpox activities have never been independently verified.

In , the Russian government announced that all of its remaining smallpox samples would be moved to the Vector Institute in Koltsovo. Concern has been expressed by some that artificial gene synthesis could be used to recreate the virus from existing digital genomes, for use in biological warfare. Elizabeth tried to disguise the pockmarks with heavy makeup.

Mary, Queen of Scots , contracted the disease as a child but had no visible scarring. In Europe, deaths from smallpox often changed dynastic succession. Louis XV of France succeeded his great-grandfather Louis XIV through a series of deaths of smallpox or measles among those higher in the succession line. He himself died of the disease in Peter II of Russia died of the disease at 14 years of age. He was left scarred and disfigured. His wife, Catherine the Great , was spared but fear of the virus clearly had its effects on her.

She feared for the safety of her son, Paul , so much that she made sure that large crowds were kept at bay and sought to isolate him. Eventually, she decided to have herself inoculated by a British doctor, Thomas Dimsdale. While this was considered a controversial method at the time, she succeeded. Paul was later inoculated as well. Catherine then sought to have inoculations throughout her empire stating: "My objective was, through my example, to save from death the multitude of my subjects who, not knowing the value of this technique, and frightened of it, were left in danger.

In China, the Qing dynasty had extensive protocols to protect Manchus from Peking 's endemic smallpox. Washington became infected with smallpox on a visit to Barbados in Famous theologian Jonathan Edwards died of smallpox in following an inoculation. Soviet leader Joseph Stalin fell ill with smallpox at the age of seven. His face was badly scarred by the disease. He later had photographs retouched to make his pockmarks less apparent. In the face of the devastation of smallpox, various smallpox gods and goddesses have been worshipped throughout parts of the Old World , for example in China and India.

If the victim recovered, the shrines were removed and carried away in a special paper chair or boat for burning. If the patient did not recover, the shrine was destroyed and cursed, to expel the goddess from the house. Roughly translated, it means One who kills a person by covering them with pustules. One of the most feared deities of the orisha pantheon, smallpox was seen as a form of punishment from Shopona.

India's first records of smallpox can be found in a medical book that dates back to CE. This book describes a disease that sounds exceptionally like smallpox. The Hindu goddess Shitala was both worshipped and feared during her reign. It was believed that this goddess was both evil and kind and had the ability to inflict victims when angered, as well as calm the fevers of the already afflicted. Some Indian women, in an attempt to ward off Shitala, placed plates of cooling foods and pots of water on the roofs of their homes.

In cultures that did not recognize a smallpox deity, there was often nonetheless a belief in smallpox demons , who were accordingly blamed for the disease. Such beliefs were prominent in Japan, Europe, Africa, and other parts of the world. Nearly all cultures who believed in the demon also believed that it was afraid of the color red. This led to the invention of the so-called red treatment, where victims and their rooms would be decorated in red. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Eradicated viral disease. For other uses, see Variola disambiguation. Medical condition. Early : Fever, vomiting, mouth sores [5] Later : Fluid filled blisters which scab over [5]. Main article: Smallpox vaccine. Main article: History of smallpox.

See also: Smallpox vaccine and Inoculation. Further information: Smallpox virus retention debate. ISBN Colour Atlas of Tropical Dermatology and Venerology. Chapter 1. Smallpox and its eradication. History of International Public Health. Geneva: World Health Organization. Retrieved 14 December Sherris Medical Microbiology 4th ed. McGraw Hill. WHO Factsheet. Archived from the original on 21 September PMC PMID Elsevier Health Sciences. Microbe hunters, then and now. Medi-Ed Press. Smallpox : the death of a disease. Prometheus Books.

Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 30 March A History of Immunology 2nd ed. Academic Press. A Brief History of Medicine. London: Robinson. Retrieved 27 March Health and Sustainability: An Introduction. Oxford University Press. Princeton University Press. Online Etymology Dictionary. Annals of Internal Medicine. CiteSeerX S2CID World Health Organization.

Smallpox Overview. Archived from the original on 2 April Retrieved 26 December Archived from the original PDF on 6 March Archived from the original on 9 October Retrieved 28 October Smallpox 1st ed. Bombay: Kothari Book Depot. OCLC Retrieved 23 September From the training course titled "Smallpox: Disease, Prevention, and Intervention" www. Archived from the original PDF on 10 May Retrieved 21 December The New Yorker. Retrieved 3 January The Journal of Hygiene. London: Churchill. Emerging Infectious Diseases. Retrieved 6 February August Science Submitted manuscript. Bibcode : Sci Bibcode : PNAS.. Infection, Genetics and Evolution. December Current Biology. Journal of Virology.

Fields Virology. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott-Raven. June Working Group on Civilian Biodefense". Retrieved 27 December London: Serindia Publications. New York: Simon and Schuster, Inc. Retrieved 15 October Letters on the English. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on 16 November Retrieved 28 December Smallpox Fact Sheet.

Archived from the original PDF on 2 January Retrieved 2 January The Journal of Infectious Diseases. The Journal of General Virology. Archived from the original on 16 September Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group July Smallpox and Its Eradication. Retrieved 28 July The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 7 June Biologicals:Vaccines and Immunization. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. Shelton, p. The Greatest Killer: Smallpox in history. University of Chicago Press. Originally published as Hopkins DR Princes and Peasants: Smallpox in History. Retrieved 6 July Mathematics in population biology. National Geographic Society. Retrieved 9 December BBC News. British Journal of Ophthalmology.

Encyclopedia of North American Indians. University of California Press. Archived from the original on 7 September Retrieved 22 February The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Paleopathology. The life and death of smallpox. Archived from the original on 1 June Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Grundy I ed. Selected Letters. Penguin Books. Proceedings of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. Retrieved 12 October Journal of Medical Biography. Sinclair SJ ed. A view of the ancient and present state of the Zetland islands. Edinburgh: John Ballantyne and Co.

Long describes Amherst's "kindliness to the French" and Obstacles In Wes Moores Life to Amherst's "intensity Boston Smallpox Research Paper feeling on these issues":. History of International Public Health. The young Ben Franklin — by his Boston Smallpox Research Paper account — dearly loved a good verbal Boston Smallpox Research Paper. In Boston Smallpox Research Paper, the Hindu goddess of smallpox, Shitalawas worshipped in temples throughout the country. CiteSeerX Boston Smallpox Research Paper Cowpox served as Boston Smallpox Research Paper natural vaccine Boston Smallpox Research Paper the modern smallpox vaccine emerged in the Caged Bird Sings Education Boston Smallpox Research Paper.