⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐ Animal Farm: How Napoleon Stayed In Charge
Malindi, Lamu Kidney Transplantation Essay Pemba venture into agriculture. Unfortunately for Animal Farm: How Napoleon Stayed In Charge, a murderous Animal Farm: How Napoleon Stayed In Charge did and murdered the two for giving into "carnal" desires, burning them Teleia Sonera Organizational Structure together. They were also known as pebble tools because they were made of stones. They fought bravely, but Papa Animal Farm: How Napoleon Stayed In Charge was badly injured and Boo was slain by enemy fire in Animal Farm: How Napoleon Stayed In Charge closing stages of the Animal Farm: How Napoleon Stayed In Charge. The Roman legions used to Essay On Idealism And Realism all religions.
Animal Farm (Part 7)
There were distinct languages to enhance communications. Rock paintings-Pictures of animals were painted on walls and rocks. There was efficient group organization as evidenced by the ability to carry out large-scale hunting. Language invention further strengthened the social bonds and cultures of early man. Man became a Very skilled toolmaker-they made tools known as microliths- small piece of sharp stone tool.
For example, a crescent or a lunate which had a straight sharp cutting edge and a curved blunted back. Their weapons include stone axes, knives, spears, harpoons, wooden bows, and sharp, stone tipped arrows, hooks, needles, and bone fish hooks. Earlier sapiens used caves as their homes instead of building one. Later, they made permanent homes that looked like tents or tepees, out of tree branches, grass, mammoth bones, and animal skins. They used or made some sort of paint to use on their cave paintings. Due to settled life and improved settlement, rules and laws were set up as a basis of government.
Some people also specialized in leadership, religious activities as well as making of crafts. They began to ponder over issues like life and death. Evidence is found at Hyrax Hill and Njoro river Cave where human fossil remains were found buried with items such as tools and seeds or foodThe practice of burying someone with his possessions implied a belief in life after death. Neanderthals were the first to bury their dead. It is the cultivation of crops. The modern definition of agriculture includes animal husbandry, fish farming and bee-keeping. The transformation from hunting and gathering to growing of food crops was a gradual development. The first crops were grown by man in areas where they existed naturally. Neolithic women noticed new grain plants grew when they accidentally spilled grain seeds.
They tried scattering seeds on purpose — it worked! The above facts point out that the beginning of crop farming was accidental and mainly through trial and errorEarliest crops to be domesticated were barley, wheat, sorghum, millet, rice, maize, yams, cassava, potatoes, bananas and grapes. Since they grew in different environments, there were many centres of agricultural revolution. For example;.
The first cereal to be domesticated. Then spread to India and china by about BC. The Dog was the first animal to be domesticated. The next animals were the sheep, Goats, cattle and camels. Animal domestication Began through establishment of ties between man and animals during hunting or when fetching water. The Goat was first domesticated in south west Asia in BC. Also in Iraq, upper Tigris valley, turkey and south Jordan. Goat domestication was in Egypt in BC Sheep. Sheep was domesticated after the dog. Sheep was also kept in Indus valley and yellow river valleys. Cattle was first domesticated in south-west Asia as early as BC in turkey and then in Iran and Iraq.
It then spread to Ethiopia and North Africa from Asia. Though camels are associated with North Africa today, the original home has been traced to North America from where t spread to South America and Asia. The Asian and s. American species became the ancestors of the Alpaca and Illama. Two types of camels exist today- the one-humped found in Middle East, northern china and Africa , and the two-humped camel found in central Asia. Camels were domesticated about BC to BC.
Mesopotamia was the land between the two rivers Tigris and Euphrates and lay in the present day irag. It was one of the centres of early civilization as early as BC. The Sumerians are credited as the first people to use irrigation in growing crops. When the river water overflowed the banks during flooding, the Sumerians had the skill of controlling it through canals into the dry lands. Canal or bucket irrigation. They also used farm implements to improve crop growing. For example the use of ox-drawn ploughs and seed drills pulled by oxen to replace stone hoes.
Most of the people during the summer civilization earned their livelihood as farmers, craftsmen, fishermen and cattle breeders. Most of the land was in form of large estates owned by the rulers or the wealthy classes. The peasants were given small plots along with seeds, farm implements and animals in exchange for labour. The Crops grown included barley, wheat, vines, date, palms, grapes, olives, onions, figs, melons and cucumbers. Milk animals kept included goats and cow. Also ducks, pigs, geese and horses were kept. As early as BC, people had already settled in the Nile valley. By around BC, the Egyptians had gradually adopted agriculture, departing from a hunter-gatherer society.
This was the method of irrigation used in Egypt during the drought season when the river was not flooding. A shadoof is a wooden device for lifting water from a river into the canals. It consisted of a long pole swinging up and down between two supporting wooden posts One end has a weight hanging on the pole while the other end has a skin bucket. The bucket is pulled down and dipped into the water by a person. It is caused to rise by the weight, once water has been filled. The other person empties the water into the canal to be drained into the fields.
The Egyptians used farm implements like sticks, knives, axes, sickles and hoesAmong the crops planted in Egypt included wheat, barley, fruits, flax, beans, vegetables, cucumbers, onions, lentils, dates, figs and grapes. They used the broadcasting method. Shifting cultivation was also practiced before human population increased. They kept animals like sheep, goat, pigs, donkey, cattle and poultry. The king was regarded as the guardian who presided over food supply for all. The master of largesse was responsible for all the livestock in the country.
In the year when agricultural production was poor, the head of the exchequer would take care of the distribution of seeds and livestock. The feudal kings had plenty of land; but they could not control it all. Nobility then gave Part of their land to the serfs peasants who would work on it and give part of their crops to the local land lord, for letting them farm the land. There was uncontrolled breeding in livestock instead of selective breeding since livestock grazed together. Fallow land and existence of Cattle and footpaths that crisscrossed the farms wasted a lot of land. Lord Viscount Townsend discovered that clover added nitrogen to the soil and turnips could survive in winter and be used to feed cattle.
Townsend introduced a new four- course crop rotation called the Norfolk system consisting of barley, clover, turnips and wheat on same plot for a four-year period. In , John Bennet Lawes discovered the use of fertilizers and opened a superphosphate factory in London. From Britain the revolution spread to other parts of Europe and Americas and then the rest of the world.
Ideas like crop rotation, use of machines, selective breeding of livestock and use of fertilizers spread into continental Europe from Britain. The governments encouraged agricultural science and research. The work of Louis Pasteur a Frenchman discovered that disease are caused by bacteria and sterilization of food such as milk through boiling keeps it bacteria-free for long time. The Americas was the origin of many crops in the world the American Indians were subsistence farmers growing crops like yams, potatoes, maize corn , cocoa, tomatoes, cotton, tobacco, beans and cassava.
Political and religious differences in Europe in the 17 th c forced many Europeans to settle in America as was also the enclosure system in Britain. Craftsmen and labouerers also moved in search of better life. The immigrant settlers came with horses, sheep, cattle, pigs, fowls, seeds and plants from Europe. Some of them participated in improving the machines that were already in use in Europe. For example:. American scientists also developed the refrigerator. For example, John Perkins an American inventor patented the first prototype refrigerator in England in The first American patent for a refrigerator was awarded to John Gorrie in This was a major milestone in preservation of meat and other foods in America.
Several agricultural zones emerged in America due to differences in soil fertility and climate:. There was large scale mechanized agriculture especially after the abolition of slave trade. Most cash crops were grown to provide raw materials to European industries. Tobacco was grown in Virginia and Maryland. Rice and indigo were grown in Georgia and South Carolina. Transport development also enhanced agricultural development. For example, water transport using the great lakes, railway and road transport. Alexander graham bell invented the telegraph to enhance communication. USA also invested in the field of science and research which boosted agriculture with better hybrid seeds and different strains of livestock. Many of these third world countries have food shortages and even continue to have weak economies upto date.
Archaeological evidence for example, the tools found at kobi for a, Olorgesaillie, kariandusi, Mtongwe, around Lake Victoria, lukenya hills, near lake Naivasha show that Kenya was inhabited by Stone Age people. There is also evidence of use of iron in Kenya dating back as AD e. According to oral traditions, the earliest people to occupy Kenya were of the Khoisan stock.
They all spoke a language with a clicking sound. NB- such evidence of the culture of the Khoisan has been found in Gambles and Njoro river caves near Nakuru. These pioneering inhabitants of Kenya disappeared maybe after being subdued and overcome by the powerful incoming Bantus and nilotes. However, there exist some remnants of these hunter-gatherer communities in the western highlands of rift valley. They speak the language of the group near them like kalenjin okiek , Maasai Dorobo , Onguye and Okuro in western Kenya. They might have entered present day Kenya through northern Kenya and seem to have originated from the Ethiopian highlands. Since they were pastoralists, they must have been looking for better pasture for their livestock. Around and years ago, they were already occupying the grasslands of the Kenya highlands cultivating food crops like sorghum , millet and rearing long horned humpless cattle.
They even extended upto Tanzania. Some were later absorbed by the incoming groups. They originated either from Ethiopia or Somalia moving and settling into Kenya around and years ago due to the following reasons;. They came in the 16thcentury from Ethiopia. Initially they settled on the eastern shores of Lake Turkana. They later moved south pushing the Mijikenda and the Pokomo out of the Shungwaya to occupy Malindi and Kilifi. Today they occupy the southern part of Tana River and are neighbours to the Pokomo.
They are also Oromo speaking people whose origin is southern Ethiopia. Their migration into Kenya was due to escaping the Menelik Wars of Conquest in and who had imposed heavy taxes on them. They represent some of the most recent migrations into Kenya end as late as when more Borana groups fled into Kenya from Somali running away from the war between the Somali Nationalists and the British.
They originated from Mogadishu where they were living by 10th century A. They begun moving southwards into Kenya around that time maybe due to the Oromo threat or they were looking for pasture for their livestock. The Somali represent the largest single group of eastern Cushites in Kenya. Taboo against eating Fish among the Bantu, the age set system and circumcision has origin from the Cushites. This became a major dispersal point from where the Bantus moved in four major waves. Of these waves, the two waves that account for settle of the Bantu in Kenya are the ones moving south-eastwards through the area west of LakeVictoria a 2nddispersal point for Bantus.
From here they dispersed in two groups;. The reasons for the migration of the Bantu are not known but they most likely included the following;. They include Luhyia, Kisii, Kuria and abasuba and settled in western part of kenya thus their name. The sub-groups which constitute the community have a common background, common customs and speak closely related dialects of the same language.
The area at the junction of footpaths was known as Uluyia or a meeting point and it is claimed that the name Abaluhyia is derived from this. All the children are referred as children of one Luhyia and hence the name Abaluhyia. The settlement of the Abaluhyia into Kenya dates back to AD. Also, their interaction with the Maasai led to establishment of clans like the Abashimuli among the Idakho. The Marachi, Kisa and Samia interacted with the Luo. Following an easterly course along the lake shore, they settled at the head of Goye Bay in Yimbo location of Nyanza with their homeland spreading across present day Ulowa, Sare and Unyejra at the foot of Ramogi hill.
Luo migrants in AD found them settled in this general area and pushed them from alego to Kisumu where they lived upto AD. However, their eastward migration was checked by the Maasai and the Kipsigis. Why the Abagusii remained in the Kano plains for too long before settling in the Kisii highlands. The Abakuria adopted the practice of age set organization and circumcision from the southern Cushites. They came from the region just west of Lake Victoria and settled on the islands. Other subgroups migrated and settled on the shores of Lake Victoria in the early 18th century. In the 16th century, it appears, small family groups related to the Ganda people on the western side of the lake migrated across Lake Victoria on boats to settle on Rusinga Island and other islands near what is now Kenya and Tanzania.
They include the Taita, Pokomo and Mijikenda. From the west Victoria dispersal point their first movement was upto Taita hills, where the Taita remained. The Mijikenda and Pokomo proceeded northwards to the coast upto Shungwaya another dispersal point. They moved from Shungwaya following river Tana interacting with the Cushites like the Oromoand Somali. Each of the nine groups settled in their own separate ridge referred to as Kaya fortified with thorny trees.
By the 19th, the Mijikenda were established as middlemen during the long distance trade between the Akamba and the coastal Waswahili. The Kikuyu traditionally believe that a man, Gikuyu, was the founder of the tribe. He had a wife named Mumbi, who gave birth to nine plus one daughters. The daughters married and had their own families, retaining a domineering role in Kikuyu society.
The Agikuyu seem to have moved southwest from the coast at around AD also running away from hostile Oromo. They followed Tana River with some groups falling off and settling in different places. For example the Tharaka settled in the east and the Ambeere settled in the southwest. The main group proceeded upto the confluence of rivers Tana and Thika Mukurwe wa Gathanga. The Kikuyu were in Kabete by around , Ruiru about Another group moved south to the Galana River and settled in the region around chyulu hills north of mt.
Those that moved to drier Chyulu hills became hunters. The Kitui group adopted pastoralism and hunting and participated in long distance trade. The Shungwaya dispersal might have led to the pushing of the Ameru to tigania and igembe regions at around AD. They crossed the Tana River with the Tharaka sections of Agikuyu and settled to the east of tana. The Chuka section settled in the west of river tana. The mwimbi, imenti, tigania and igembe also settled west of the Tana River.
Nilotes is a term originating from the word Nile. The origin of these groups is associated with the Nile River. These are the second largest group after the Bantu. They are believed to have originated from Bahr-el-Ghazal region of southern Sudan. They later moved into Kenya. Their arrival caused the displacement of many Bantu-speaking peoples, notably the Gusii, Kuria and Luhya, who were forced into the highlands east and north of the lake. From here, several groups like the Jie, Iteso, Turkana and karamojong emerged, with the Iteso settling in Uganda in 17thc before expanding into western Kenya by 19thc.
The Turkana extended northwards to their present area. By AD , the Maasai begun to move separately southwards between Mt,. Kenya and Mt. They also waged war against the neighbouring Kalenjin, Akamba and Abagusii. They also experienced civil wars between the Kwavi iloikop and the Purko Ilmaasai sections. When Oloibon Mbatian died, his two sons Sendeyo and Lenana became involved in a protracted succession dispute. They were also weakened by wars with the Agikuyu. Their power came to an end with the coming of British rule.
They are believed to be the earliest Nilotic speakers in Kenya. This evidenced from the narratives of their neighbours like the Luo. Their traditions point their original homeland to be a place to the north-western part of Kenya, between Sudan and Ethiopia. They began migrating from their cradleland in around AD. By AD, some kalenjin groups like the Sirikwa were already occupying the rift valley. Some were later pushed out of the Mt. Those that remained include the Bok, Bongomek and Kony.
The Terik later migrated to western Kenya and greatly borrowed from the Bantu, adopting a new name, Tiriki. They were pushed out of the Mt. Elgon region between and by the incoming Maasai. The decline of the Maasai in the 19thc made them rise to become a formidable group that conducted raids against their neighbours like the Abaluhyia and Luo. They are believed to have separated together with the Nandi from other kalenjin groups at around Mt. Elgon region around AD They moved south east to Teo, near Lake Baringo. Due to the Maasai attacks, they moved westwards to Tambach where they stayed for a long period.
They later moved southwards to Rongai near Nakuru. The Kipsigis moved further south to Kericho while the Nandi moved to Aldai during the 2nd half of 18thc. The Kipsigis settled at Kipsigis Hills forming a strong community that assimilated thelegendary Sirikwa and some Maasai and Abagusii groups. They were for a long time allies of the Nandi. What factors contributed to the Nandi and Kipsigis split during the mid 18 th century. Explain the results of the interactions between the various Kenyan communities during the pre-colonial period.
In some communities like the Akamba, Abaluhyia, only boys circumcised. Among the Abagusii and Agikuyu, both boys and girls were circumcised. The initiates were taught the values and customs of their community. Among the Agikuyu community, a medicine person was called mundu mugo. There were songs for initiations, childbirth, marriage, harvest and funeral. The mood and style of their song and dances varied depending on the occasion.
Each clan was made up of related families. Leadership of the clan was in the hands of a council of elders who played a pivoted role in solving disputes, decided on inter-tribal marriages, maintaining law and order and making executive decisions affecting the community like declaring war. For example among the Agikuyu, the boys joined the age-set after initiation to provide warriors who defended the community from external attacks and raid other communities for cattle.
His office was hereditary. He was assisted by a chief minister and other officials with a council of elders. Dowry was paid inform of livestock. Some communities used livestock as a form of currency in barter trade. They sold grains in exchange for baskets and fish from the Luo. This sometimes also became trading items. They grew grains like millet, sorghum and cassava among other crops mainly for food while the excess were sold to neighbours.
By 19thcentury, the Agikuyu had a complex social, economic and political organization some of which were products of their interrraction with other communities. It was only after initiation that boys and girls were considered mature enough to get married. They called their God Ngai. He was all powerful and as believed to dwell o mt. A medicine person was called mundu mugo. Their main work was to cure diseases.
They learned their skills through apparent-iceship. The basic political system was based on the family headed by a father. They sold grains and iron implements in exchange for livestock products like skins and beads Maasai and imported goods like clothes Akamba. They borrowed this art from the Gumba. The Ameru had a system of government which ensured high standards of morality and stability. This system evolved as they migrated and interacted with other communities. The Ameru was a system characterized by the existence of various councils from the council of children to the supreme council of Njuri Ncheke.
This was meant to ensure the highest moral standards in the community. The Njuri Ncheke acted as parliament and had the following functions;. It also mediated in disputes involving the Meru and their neighbors. A member of the Njuri Ncheke who offended another was fined a bundle of miraa. A warrior who violated the code was fined a bull, an elder who violated the code was fined a bull or a goat, a woman who broke the code was fined a big pot of cowpeas. Marriage was regarded highly among the Ameru and a married woman would be assigned to an elderly woman midwife whom she must give gifts like millet, peas and black beans in exchange for midwifery. Any spouse who involved in adultery or any girl who was not a virgin at the time of marriage was stoned to death by a stoning council made up of male initiates.
Marriage was exogamous no one was allowed to marry from their clan Before a male child was considered mature, he underwent several stages including circumcision. Before circumcision of both boys and girls, two ceremonies were performed after which they became full members of the community. The Ameru believed in the existence of a supreme being called Baaba Weetu who was a loving father and took care of all. He was omnipresent. The Ameru also believed in the existence of spirits which either brought happiness or tears depending on how one lived on earth. They believed in life after death with good people going where rains come from when they die.
Libations were offered to ancestors to quench their thirst and relieve their hunger. Goats and cattle for dowry payment and rituals and also for milk, meat and skin. When the coastal traders penetrated the interior, they exchanged goods with them. Several families made up a clan headed by a clan elder. Every Meru belonged to the relevant council. The supreme council was known as Njuri Ncheke. It also officiated over religious ceremonies. However their tradition allowed the adoption of an outsider into a clan. The initiates were then taught community secrets after two years from circumcision at 14 years. Mostly found at a place with two large fig trees. For example, during harvest, weddings, deaths and birth.
Outside the entrance of the homestead, there was an open space thome , where men would sit and discuss political and other important matters. There was however no single central authority that united the Akamba the Kivalo was always disbanded after war. The full elders Atumia ma Kivalo participated in delivering judgements. The senior most elders Atumia ma Ithembo were involved in religious activities. For example, chief Kivoi. They planted sorghum, millet, yams, potatoes, sugarcane and beans. They were gatherers who Collected fruits, roots etc. The clan formed the basic political unit for Gusii communities. The council was known Abagata ba gesaku. The Abagusii also had chiefdoms made up of several clans, which United to counter-attacks from their neighbours.
Each chiefdom was headed by a chief Omugambi , assisted by a councilof clan elders. The position of the chief was hereditary. The Omogambi presided over religious ceremonies. He led clan members in communal sacrifices and social activities such as the planting and harvesting of crops. He also performed political functions. After circumcision, the boys joined the age-set which acted as a military wing responsible for the defence of the community. The Kisii still practice most of the political features discussed above.
The Abagusii lived in family unit, headed by a family member, called the family head. Several related families formed a clan, headed by clan elders who formed a council. The role of the council of elders was to settle disputes between families. A number of clans formed sub-communities headed by clan elders. Circumcision of boys and girls formed part of the initiation rites for the Abagusii. The initiates were taught the values and customs of the society after which they were considered adults. The initiated boys were organized into age groups and age-grades. An age-grade was made up of people who were circumcised together.
Members of the same age-grade treated one another as real brothers and helped each other in times of need. They offered sacrifices to him during special occasions like initiation ceremonies and religions festivals and when there were problems like illness and draught. They worshipped him through their ancestral spirits. Diviners and seers among the Kisii were special people and were called Omoragori. They grew many food crops including maize, sorghum, yams, peas, beans, millet, cassava, bananas and sweet potatoes. They also kept poultry. They traded with their neighbours especially the Luo and the Abaluhyia. The Luo supplied them with livestock, cattle, salt, hides, fish, drums, and poison for arrows, spears and potatoes. In return, the Abagusii supplied the Luo with grain, hoes, axes, spears, arrowheads, razors, soapstone, soapstone dust, baboon skins, pipes, bowls and carvings of animals and birds.
They made iron implements such as hoes, spears, axes and arrow heads. They also made ornaments. They used is dust to decorate their faces during ceremonies. Some was sold to the Luos who used to decorate faces of their heroes. It was used for making pots, pipes, bowls and carvings. They hunted wild game for meat and skins. They also collected wild fruit roots and vegetables. To date, they still raid the Maasai and Kipsigis for livestock. The Mijikenda comprise of nine groups that had similar social, economic and political structures.
They are believed to have arrived in their current settlement from Shungwaya. Only boys circumcised. Circumcision marked an entry into an age set whose functions included building huts and advising junior age -sets on how to raid. They called their God Mulungu. They practiced polygamy. Children looked after livestock, young men built houses, cattle sheds, hunted and cleared bushes for cultivation.. There were songs for initiations, childbirth, marriage, harvest and funeral.. Administration was based on a strong clan system. Hunting and gathering was also done to supplement their food. However they shared institutions such as the clan-based organization, belief in one God, veneration of ancestral spirits, age-set system, social ceremonies and existence of religious leaders.
Several related families grouped together to form clans among the Luo, Maasai and Nandi. Some of the religious leaders had assumed political power by 19 th c. For example the Orkoiyot among the Nandi and Oloibon among the Maasai. The age sets were formed by those who were initiated at the same time. The institution created a bond among the initiates that cut across the families and clans thus uniting the whole community. The other groups practiced circumcision. In all the groups, the initiates were taught the community values. The kalenjin traded with the Maasai and with the Luo and neighbouring Bantu communities like the Abaluhyia.
They sold animal products and red ochre in exchange for grains from the Bantu. This skilled was borrowed from the Bantu. Some sections of the Maasai e. The Purko were purely pastoralists. The Turkana also engaged in fishing on Lake Turkana. Each community had Warriors who defended the community and raided other communities. The Luo reffered to the warriors as Thuondi. The Maasai called them Moran. For example, the Orkoiyot among the Nandi and the Oloibon among the Maasai were primarily religious leaders who wielded political authority in the19th century. Several related families grouped together to form clans among Nandi. The family institution was very important in the community.
It played an important role in the Kokwet council of elders and in the clan activities. Nandi boys and girls were initiated at puberty through circumcision. Circumcision marked entry into adulthood. The initiates were taught the deepest community values during the period. They only promoted to senior warriors after the Saket apeito ceremony slaughter of bullock that was done after every fifteen years. This was meant to create unity by encouraging intermarriages between different clans.
The institution of Orkoiyot among the Nandi was borrowed from that of Oloibon among the Maasai. Cattle were a symbol of status among the Nandi and also a form of dowry settlement. They acquired large herds of cattle through raiding neighbouring communities such as the Maasai. Abaluhyia and Luo. The Nandi traded with the Maasai and with the Luo and neighbouring Bantu communities like the Abaluhyia.
The Nandi however were self sufficient in food. The family was the basic political unit. It was headed by a father who dealt with internal matters such as discipline, allocation of crops, land and cattle. In matters affecting the neighbourhood, he was assisted by the Kokwet council of elders which was made up of neighbourhood heads. Above the Kokwet was the clan organization whose council of elders tackled matters to do with grazing rights.
Above the clan, there was a larger socio-political unit comprising different war groups located in the same geographical zone called a pororiet. This formed the highest political unit among the Nandi. The pororiet council of elders comprised representatives from different clansIts functions included negotiating for peace and declaring war. The Nandi boys became junior warriors after circumcision. In total, the Maasai had five clans spread over large areas and not necessarily staying together. For about ten years. The Maasai referred to him as Engai. Prayers and sacrifices were offered to him at the shrines. They called their religious leader Oloibon. There were several social ceremonies that accompanied the rites of passage like circumcision, marriage and death.
The Eunoto ceremony marked the graduation of the Morans into junior elders. This ceremony is still practiced upto date. They sold animal products and red ochre in exchange for grains from the Agikuyu. The largest political unit amongst Maasai was the tribal section, which was a geographically distinct entity which operated as a nation, especially during ceremonies. Affairs involving inter-clan cooperation were dealt within ad hoc meetings comprising age set spokesmen. The youths at this stage looked after family and clan livestock until they reached circumcision stage at about 15 years. The stage was joined by young men circumcised together and comprised of ages between 18 and 25 years. They defended the community and conducted raids to boost the clan and tribal flocks.
They had a military leader known as Olaiguani. The stayed in isolation in manyattas undergoing military training in order to graduate into senior warriors. After that they were permitted to marry. It comprised heads of households,, aim responsibility was to maintain peace and instruct warriors on how to handle issues in the community. They were permitted to own livestock. They comprise the senior most age-set. Membership was determined by age and experience. The group performed religious functions and also was responsible for and dealt with difficult judicial and political decisions.
The Maasai adopted the institution of Oloibon or prophet that combined socio-religious functions and later own assumed political authority. The family was the basic social unit among the Luo. The Luo community valued large families and therefore practiced polygamy. Marriage among the Luo was exogamous no one was allowed to marry from their clan. They believed in one supernatural being whom they called Nyasaye.
They prayed to Nyasaye. The communities believed in the existence of ancestral spirits, to whom sacrifices and libations were made to ensure they remained happy. Sacred shrines and trees existed. He rocks, high hills and even the lake were associated with supernatural power. There was the existence of religious leaders whose work was to lead the communities during religious functions and perform rituals. These included priests, medicine people, rain makers and diviners. For one to be a medicine person, a benevolent spirit called Juogi must possess him or her.
The Luo youths as their form of initiation extracted six lower teeth. After that they were allowed to marry. The Luo had several social ceremonies that accompanied the rites of passage like marriage and death. They Practiced livestock keeping for prestige and cultural purposes e. Both men and women conducted fishing, which was a source of food as well as a trade commodity. They sold pots, baskets, cattle, fish and livestock for grains, spears, arrows and canoes from the Abaluhyia, Abagusii, Kipsigis and Nandi. Women specialized in production of pottery products, baskets and clothes. The family was the basic political unit among the Luo.
The head of the family was referred to as Jaduong. Several related families made up a clan headed by a council of elders called Doho whose main responsibility was to settle inter-family disputes. Above the Doho was a grouping of clans called Oganda headed by a council of elders reffered to as Buch piny and headed by a chief elder called Ruoth. The Buch piny comprised representatives from each clan. It was responsible for settling inter -clan conflicts, declaring war and punishing criminals such as murderers. Religious leaders among the Luo also influenced politics. One of the members of the council of elders was given a responsibility of advising the council on military matters and was therefore a war leader osumba Mrwayi.
Under them was a special group of warriors reffered to as Thuondi bulls. Their work was to raided neighbouring communities like the Maasai, Nandi and Abagusii and other perceived enemies. These were the smallest linguistic group in Kenya inhabiting the northern part of Kenya. They are a nomadic Sam speaking group. The communities developed complex social, economic and political institutions that were interrupted by the coming of the Muslims and Europeans.
The Cushites had a patrilineal society, which means they traced their origins through the fatherThe Cushites believed in a common ancestor which makes their kinship system strong. All the Cushitic communities practiced circumcision of boys and clitoridectomy for girls as a form of initiation. This was a rite of passage into adulthood. After circumcision, the initiates were taught about their adult roles and their rights as members of the community. Circumcision marked an entry into an age set whose functions included defending the community from external attacks, building huts and advising junior age-sets on how to raid.
Each age set had a leader with specific duties. They believed in the existence of a supreme god, who was the creator of everything. He was given different names. The Oromo referred to him as wak waq. They also believed in spirits which inhabited natural objects like rocks and trees. The Cushites had shrines from which they prayed to their God. Later on, through interaction with their neighbours, all the Cushites became Muslims by the 16thc. The Cushitic speakers were polygamous and their marriage was exogamous in nature. Inheritance was from father to son among the Cushites. Girls had no right to inheritance. The Cushitic life was full of ceremonies. They celebrated life both in song and dance. They had a diversified economic system that catered for their livelihood and supported their lifestyle.
Camels and cattle provided milk and blood and were assigning of prestige. Goats and sheep provided meat. Some Cushites who lived along river valleys practiced substance agriculture where they grew grain crops, vegetables, dates, peas, pepper, tubers and bananas. They also practiced iron smelting and made iron tools e. They hunted wild game for food, ivory, skins hides for clothing, bedding and gathered fruits and roots and vegetables. They engaged in craft industry e. Some of them who lived near rivers and along the Indian Ocean practiced fishing. They traded with their neighbours e. All the Cushitic communities like other groups in Kenya, had decentralized forms of government. The clan formed the basic political unit for all the Bantu communities.
The social and political system of the Cushites was interwoven that the social divisions, age set system were also important aspects of the political system. Leadership of the clan was in the hands of a council of elders who played a pivoted role in solving disputes, acting as ritual experts, presiding over religious ceremonies, maintaining law and order and making executive decisions affecting the community like declaring war. Among the Cushites a clan was independent of others except when the wider community faced a common enemy or problem.
The Cushites developed an age-set system that had some political significance. After circumcision, the boys joined the age-set after initiation to provide warriors who defended the community from external attacks and raid other communities for cattle. The age set system was based on about ten groups each with its own leader. At the end of an age cycle, a ceremony was performed and the senior age sets retired from public life and settled in different territories.
The social organization of the Somali. Like Somali were organized into clans each comprising of families whose members claimed common descent. They also had an age set system. Circumcision marked an entry into an age set whose functions included defending the community from external attacks, building huts and advising junior agesets on how to raid. They believed in the existence of a supreme god, whom they referred to as wak waq. He was the creator of everything. They had religious leaders who mediated between God and the people. Later on, through interaction with their neighbours, all the Somali became Muslims by the 16thc. The Somali valued marriage as an important institution. They were polygamous and their marriage was exogamous in nature.
The Somali had a decentralized political system of administration. The basic political unit was the clan made up of related families. The clan was headed by a council of elders in charge of day to day affairs of the clan e. The Somali had an age set system and all male members of the society belonged to an age set. From the age set system, there evolved a military organization for community defence. Initiates joined the age set system after circumcision.
With the advent of Islamic religion political organization changed. They now had community leaders called sheikhs whose role was mainly advisory. The political system was now based on the Islamic sharia. The Borana had a complex social organization. The society was divided into clans led by elders whose responsibility was to settle disputes and maintaining law and order. The borana had a strong belief in the extended family. The Borana were nomadic. But they had a residential section called the camp that consisted of a few huts of related families. In the camps, it was the most senior married and competent man who became the head of the camp abba olla. The Borana had a complex age-set structure called Gada. Each Gada was headed by the most powerful individual among the group members Abba boku.
His duty would be to preside over village meetings, proclaim laws and preside over religious ceremonies. The community had two kinship groups that practiced exogamous marriage.. A man from the Gona kinship would only marry from the Sabbo kinship. Polygamy was allowed. The family among the borana was headed by a man referred to as Abba warra with the wife as the female head of the household Hatimana. There was division of labour in the society. The men defended the camps, wells, herds and shrines.
They dug wells and organized raiding parties. The men also elected leaders of camps, age sets and Gada class. The women performed household duties, wove baskets for carrying children, prepared leather and built houses. Boys herded sheep, goats and cattle. Elders presided over the court cases. The borana worshipped a powerful God, the creator whom they called Wak waq. He was worshipped through religious leaders. They had a patrilineal society where inheritance was from the father to the son, and specifically the first son, angafa, who would then redistribute the inherited cattle to the younger brothers.
Their culture was full of ceremonies. For example, there were ceremonies when a Gada class entered or left a Gada grade, there was war ceremony butta and a muda ceremony in honor of the kinship leader, kallu. Their political system was based on the kinship system where the society was divided into clans comprising related families. There were two moieties kinships that were further divided into sub-moieties. The sub-moieties were further divided into clans. Each moiety was headed by a hereditary leader known as kallu. The kallu of the Sabbo for example came from the dyallu clan of the karrayyu sub-moiety. His duties included leading in ritual ceremonies, providing judgment in major conflicts between clans.
He was elected together with the council of the Gada leaders of each gad class when it prepared to enter a new grade. The kallu were not authorized to bear arms or defend themselves but were to move in company of other members of the society. The borana society was divided into clans led by a council of elders whose responsibility was tosettle disputes and maintaining law and order. Each clan was made up of related families who lived in a residential section called the camp that consisted of a few huts of related families. Powers were distributed equally between the two moieties at all levels such as in the Gada class, age-set and camp councils as well as in tribal ceremonies.
The complex age set system mainly provided a military base for the society. The age sets, Hariyya, were recruited from boys of the same age. Gada class Luba was recruited genealogically. There were eleven grades through which the Gada classes passed from birth to death, with each grade lasting eight years. While age set members were of the same age, Gada members were of varied ages.
The age sets formed the age set council that recruited the warriors. Members of the Gada classes formed the Gada council lallaba which the responsibility of making decisions for their classes. They also resolved conflicts between non-relatives and mobilized economic activities such as digging wells, organizing societal rituals and ceremonies and directing relatives with their neighbours such as the Oromo and Somali. The councils contributed to the development of an effective political organization. The complexity of the borana institutions strengthened unity among them. Jones leave, the farm was still in the control of a tyrant. The animals ended up in the same position, if not worse than when Mr.
Jones was in charge. Also, all the seven commands have been altered and broken. Therefore, the rebellion was simply useless and…. Whymper who is going to help Animal Farm make money and bargain with the neighboring farms. One meeting, held by Napoleon, Napoleon murders several of the animals on the farm. The reason Napoleon murders these animals is because he states that they have been helping Snowball ruin the farm. The animals that Napoleon kill; confess their crime to him even though they did not commit it.
This disastrous fairy tale describes a post-human farm run entirely by its own animals, mainly the pigs on the farm. The pigs eventually became tyrants, just as terrible and totalitarian as the humans that they chased out. Due to the lack of instruction of the animals on how to use their strength and cognitive ability, the lack of confidence, and their hesitation to contradict the pigs they were easily taken advantage of, and this could happen again because of their tractability. In history,…. The reason the animals is because of a testimony made by a pig named Old Major. He tells us a dream that he had a day ago. He told the animals that should rebel because the animals are the only ones on the farm that produce anything.
Remove Man from the scene and the root cause of hunger and overwork is abolished for ever. This event was an allegory for when Stalin took control and killed anyone who disagreed with him and stood up against him to ultimately show his power and avoid any future protests. Life at the farm was rough for everyone excluding the pigs and dogs, for instance "the animals worked like slaves" p. Napoleon in total control allowed him to move into the farm-house where Mr. Jones stayed, again breaking another commandment which was "No animal shall sleep in a bed" p. Napoleon also has luxuries that the other animals has no access to. Towards the end of the story all seven commandments were removed and was replaced with "All animals were equal but some were more equal than others" p.
In Animal Farm, there were many clueless citizens following under a strong dictator, Napoleon. Many thought nothing of his skeptical ways and never had a reason to rebel against his wise and wary tactics of leadership. Napoleon instills a way of making everyone fear his structure of control, especially as the roles change and Snowball is no longer an importance in his life. At the start of the story Old Major gathers all the animals and tells them about his dream. He tells them that Humans are bad and cause them to have short and laborious lives. He teaches them the song Beasts of England and soon all the animals are singing along. Three days later old major dies in his sleep. Sooner than expected the rebellion happened.He Animal Farm: How Napoleon Stayed In Charge his years hiding through EuropeAnimal Farm: How Napoleon Stayed In Charge recently Francewhich was where Fabletown's spy, CinderellaAnimal Farm: How Napoleon Stayed In Charge him. He has possession of an Isee Clinic Case Study glamour spell. Although its form is never seen, Rose is shown bathed in a Animal Farm: How Napoleon Stayed In Charge light, and it is seen that this form impresses and shocks her. When she fell into slumber, her powers were transmitted to her son, the new Jack Frost.