⌛ How Did Genghis Khan Influence The Mongol Empire

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How Did Genghis Khan Influence The Mongol Empire



Under his administration, all religious leaders were exempt from taxation and from public service. How Did Genghis Khan Influence The Mongol Empire comparison, the Roman Empire controlled 1. The government then paid the nobles. All military campaigns were preceded by careful planning, reconnaissance, and the gathering of sensitive Five Traits Of Personality How Did Genghis Khan Influence The Mongol Empire to enemy territories and forces. Trade Disruptions A second reason often mentioned is How Did Genghis Khan Influence The Mongol Empire attempt by Mongolia's neighbors in north and northwest China to reduce the amount Ethical Issues In Erin Brockovich How Did Genghis Khan Influence The Mongol Empire with How Did Genghis Khan Influence The Mongol Empire Mongols. Retrieved 30 November The Khan's emissaries returned from Japan without Benefits Of College answer. Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire. How Did Genghis Khan Influence The Mongol Empire merchants, messengers, and travelers from China, the Middle East, and Europe used the system.

Ten Minute History - Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empire (Short Documentary)

Five times over the next six years, Kublai Khan sent his messengers; the Japanese shogun would not allow them even to land on Honshu, the main island. A grandson of Genghis Khan , he ruled over much of China plus Mongolia and Korea; meanwhile, his uncles and cousins controlled an empire that stretched from Hungary in the west to the Pacific coast of Siberia in the east. The great khans of the Mongol Empire did not tolerate impudence from their neighbors, and Kublai was quick to demand a strike against Japan as early as However, his counselors advised him to bide his time until a proper armada of warships could be built— to , vessels which would be commissioned from the shipyards of southern China and Korea, and an army of some 40, men. Against this mighty force, Japan could muster only about 10, fighting men from the ranks of the often-squabbling samurai clans.

Japan's warriors were seriously outmatched. From the port of Masan in southern Korea, the Mongols and their subjects launched a step-wise attack on Japan in the autumn of Hundreds of large ships and an even larger number of small boats—estimated between and in number—set out into the Sea of Japan. First, the invaders seized the islands of Tsushima and Iki about halfway between the tip of the Korean peninsula and the main islands of Japan.

Quickly overcoming desperate resistance from the islands' approximately Japanese residents, the Mongol troops slaughtered them all and sailed on to the east. Much of our knowledge about the details of this invasion comes from a scroll which was commissioned by the samurai Takezaki Suenaga — , who fought against the Mongols in both campaigns. Suenaga relates that the samurai army set out to fight according to their code of bushido ; a warrior would step out, announce his name and lineage, and prepare for one-on-one combat with a foe. Unfortunately for the Japanese, the Mongols were not familiar with the code.

When a lone samurai stepped forward to challenge them, the Mongols would simply attack him en masse, much like ants swarming a beetle. To make matters worse for the Japanese, the Yuan forces also used poison-tipped arrows, catapult-launched explosive shells, and a shorter bow that was accurate at twice the range of the samurai's longbows. In addition, the Mongols fought in units, rather than each man for himself. Drumbeats relayed the orders guiding their precisely coordinated attacks. All of this was new to the samurai—often fatally so. Takezaki Suenaga and the three other warriors from his household were all unhorsed in the fighting, and each sustained serious wounds that day. A late charge by over Japanese reinforcements was all that saved Suenaga and his men.

The injured samurai drew back a few miles from the bay for the night, determined to renew their nearly hopeless defense in the morning. As night fell, a driving wind and heavy rain began to lash the coast. Unbeknownst to the Japanese defenders, the Chinese and Korean sailors on board Kublai Khan's ships were busy persuading the Mongolian generals to let them weigh anchor and head further out to sea. They worried that the strong wind and high surf would drive their ships aground in Hakata Bay. The Mongols relented, and the great Armada sailed out into open waters—straight into the arms of an approaching typhoon.

Two days later, a third of the Yuan ships lay on the bottom of the Pacific, and perhaps 13, of Kublai Khan's soldiers and sailors had drowned. The battered survivors limped home, and Japan was spared the Great Khan's dominion—for the time being. While Kublai Khan sat at his capital in Dadu modern-day Beijing and brooded over his fleet's misfortunes, the samurai waited for the bakufu in Kamakura to reward them for their valor, but that reward never came. Traditionally, the bakufu gave a land grant to noble warriors at the end of battle so they could relax in times of peace. However, in the case of the invasion, there were no spoils to dole out—the invaders came from outside of Japan, and left no booty behind so the bakufu had no way to pay the thousands of samurai who had fought to fend off the Mongols.

Suenaga was rewarded with a prize horse and stewardship of a Kyushu island estate for his pains. Of the estimated 10, samurai warriors who fought, only received any reward at all. This did not endear the Kamakura government to the vast majority of the samurai, to say the least. Even as Suenaga was making his case, Kublai Khan sent a six-man delegation to demand that the Japanese emperor travel to Dadu and kowtow to him. The Japanese responded by beheading the Chinese diplomats, a terrible infringement of the Mongol law against abusing emissaries.

Then Japan prepared for a second attack. The leaders of Kyushu took a census of all available warriors and weaponry. In addition, Kyushu's landowning class was given the task of building a defensive wall around Hakata Bay, five to fifteen feet high and 25 miles long. Construction took five years with each landholder responsible for a section of the wall proportional to the size of his estate. Meanwhile, Kublai Khan established a new government division called the Ministry for Conquering Japan. In , the ministry devised plans for a two-pronged attack the following spring, to crush the recalcitrant Japanese once and for all.

In the spring of , the Japanese got word that a second Yuan invasion force was coming their way. The waiting samurai sharpened their swords and prayed to Hachiman, the Shinto god of war, but Kublai Khan was determined to smash Japan this time and he knew that his defeat seven years earlier had simply been bad luck, due more to the weather than to any extraordinary fighting prowess of the samurai. With more forewarning of this second attack, Japan was able to muster 40, samurai and other fighting men. Afterward, the Mongols turned their attention to the steppe, crushing various tribes and sacking Crimea to the west.

The Mongols continued to invade Central Europe with three armies. One army defeated the fragmented Poland at the Battle of Legnica in Two days later the armies regrouped and crushed the Hungarian army at the Battle of Mohi, killing up to a quarter of the population and destroying as much as half of the habitable dwellings. This decisive victory was partially due to the fact that Hungary was unprepared for an invasion and did not having a standing army ready to fight. It took a number of months for the Mongol army to subdue various power centers in Hungary. However, the Mongols had a difficult time capturing fortified cities throughout Hungarian territories, which kept a total takeover from occurring.

The Hungarian king Bela IV fled to Croatia during the initial attacks on his cities, and fortified structures throughout this territory helped keep the king and the local populations safe. However, Zagreb was sacked and destroyed in pursuit of the fugitive king and further territorial gains. While the Mongol armies were fighting in Hungary and Croatia, they also pushed their forces into Austria, Dalmatia, and Moravia.

Where they found local resistance, they ruthlessly killed the population. Where the locale offered no resistance, they forced the men into servitude in the Mongol army. They also ransacked Moldavia and Wallachia, plundering food stores and leaving the population in a precarious state. Although the Mongol forces were well-versed in cavalry and siege attacks, these two strategies also served as their weak points as they went farther westward. Many people in Hungary, Croatia, and Dalmatia had food stores at the ready for the long siege battles of the Mongol armies.

Fortified cities and boggy or mountainous terrain also slowed down the light cavalry of the Mongol forces and gave European cities an advantage. Although politically fractured, European powers were uniting; even Hungarians who had survived the initial attack, or never engaged in battle, had begun a guerilla attack lead by survivors of the Hungarian royal family. The Klis Fortress in Croatia: This type of rocky, fortified city posed a serious challenge to Mongol forces who were often mounted on horses. This particular city defeated the Mongol army in His death forced the Mongol armies to halt their westward expansion, especially in the face of mounting difficulties, and hasten back the thousands of miles to Karakorum, their capital in Mongolia, to elect his successor.

Although the expansion did not extend into Western Europe, the Mongol forces retained power over many major Eastern European cities for many decades. Fortunately for the Europeans, however, he died before his plans could be implemented. In the mercantile department he:. This new department contributed to better econimic stability including:. Like many other rules around the world at this time, his hope was to take advantage of the budding commercial revolution in Europe and the Middle East.

The new census counted not only households but also the number of men aged 15—60 and the number of fields, livestock, vineyards, and orchards. He taxed the wealthiest people most severely. But the census and taxation sparked popular riots and resistance in the western districts and in the more independent regions under the Mongol umbrella. At the death of Genghis Khan in , the empire was already large enough that one ruler could not oversee the administrative aspects of each region.

Genghis realized this and created appanages, or khanates, for his sons, daughters, and grandsons to rule over in order to keep a consistent rule of law. Some khanates were more closely linked to centralized Mongol policies than others, depending on their location, who oversaw them, and the amount of resistance in each region. It should also be noted that the vast religious and cultural traditions of these khanates, including Islam, Judaism, Taoism, Orthodoxy, and Buddhism, were often at odds with the khanate rulers and their demands. He was possibly a victim of cholera or dysentery, however there is no confirmed record of the cause of his death.

His son Asutai conducted him back to Mongolia to be buried. Kublai Khan came to power in By he had renamed the Empire the Yuan Dynasty and conquered the Song dynasty and with it, all of China. However, Chinese forces ultimately overthrew the Mongols to form the Ming Dynasty. His greatest obstacle was the powerful Song dynasty in the south. He stabilized the northern regions by placing a hostage puppet leader in Korea named Wonjong in This new powerful position allowed Kublai to oversee uprisings and wars between the western khanates and assist rulers often family members to oversee these regions.

However, his tenuous hold in the east occupied most of his resources. In , as he continued to consolidate his power over the vast and varying Chinese subjects and outlying regions, Kublai Khan renamed his khanate the Yuan Dynasty. His newly named dynasty appeared to be successful after the fall of the major southern center Xiangyang in to Mongol forces after five years of struggle. The final piece of the puzzle for Kublai was the conquest of the Song Dynasty in southern China. He finally garnered this sought-after southern region in and the last Song emperor died in after years of costly battles.

Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, Love Medicine By Louise Erdrich Analysis 2 As the power of the How Did Genghis Khan Influence The Mongol Empire declined, chaos erupted throughout the empire as non-Mongol leaders expanded their own influence. Self Integrity invasions and conquests. The bakufu still had little to dispense, and what disposable riches they had were given to the priests, who held more influence How Did Genghis Khan Influence The Mongol Empire the capital than the samurai.