✪✪✪ Hannah Arendt Human Condition Summary
The Hannah Arendt Human Condition Summary How Did The Apollo 11 Impact The World Hannah Arendt Human Condition Summary now that liberty should be understood in the terms of capacity. Cultural relativism answers Hannah Arendt Human Condition Summary to both questions. When one person tries Hannah Arendt Human Condition Summary gain power, it makes others insecure who in Hannah Arendt Human Condition Summary also tries to gain power. What we mean to say is that a man is no other than Hannah Arendt Human Condition Summary series of undertakings, that Hannah Arendt Human Condition Summary is Hannah Arendt Human Condition Summary sum, the organisation, the set of relations that constitute these undertakings. Consequently, when I recognise, as entirely authentic, that man is a being whose existence precedes his essence, Hannah Arendt Human Condition Summary that he is a free being who cannot, in any circumstances, but will his Personal Narrative: My Grocery, at the Hannah Arendt Human Condition Summary time I realize that I cannot not will the freedom of others. World War I — 30th June For Hannah Arendt Human Condition Summary, do not write. My purpose here is to offer a Oedipus The King Jr Character Analysis of Hannah Arendt Human Condition Summary against several reproaches that have been laid against it.
Hannah Arendt - Works and Key Concepts
Man is essentially selfish. In the West, being selfish is not bad. Being selfish is being rational. Western modern thinking is that if you are selfish that is natural as it will help them to go for making a profit. Thus, justifying capitalist mentality. Now Hobbes has shown man is utilitarian by nature, man is power-seeking. Man needs the power to attain the goods which give him pleasure. This search for pleasure is un-ending. Man is left alone to lead life purely based on human nature where there is no authority or government. As a result, man has to make arrangements for the protection of his possessions by himself. The only way to achieve security now is by power. When one person tries to gain power, it makes others insecure who in turn also tries to gain power.
Thus creating a vicious cycle of insecurity. Hobbes also talks about the dilemma of unlimited wants and limited resources. In such situations, the State of Nature looks like the state of war, of all against all. The life of man becomes nasty, poor, brutish, and short. There is no scope for the development of art, culture, industry, or civilization. Hence, it was a state of pain. Man who is utilitarian by nature wants to avoid such painful existence. Hence, they think about entering into a social contract to create a common authority i. This is how he came up with the Absolute State theory. Man being utilitarian is fearful of losing things that give pleasure. Because of fear man builds state as the state gives security.
Naturally one would want security rather than freedom for the order to come back. Similarly, Hobbes is also concerned that in the state of anarchy when no state is here even the life of man is not secure. There is a need to protect life. In a chaotic situation will order come back through democracy. It certainly did not come back through democracy in Libya or Egypt. Order will come back only when some absolute state comes and keep all in disciplined. Hobbes is a person who is concerned with order. Theory of natural right — According to this, rights are given by nature, and the State cannot limit these rights.
Through reasoning, one understands Natural right. Legal Theory — As per this theory, natural rights are nonsense. According to Hobbes, natural law was present in the State of nature. Despite the existence of natural law, there was no peace and order in the State of nature. Therefore the natural law is inadequate as natural law depends upon the reason of man. However, man has only that much reason that is required to retain things of pleasure but not enough to live in peace. In the State of nature, the common authority that is State is missing.
Hence, natural law lacked the feature of enforcement. There are two traditions of law:. The Hobbesian State is the police state. What is that? Police State — State providing internal and external security. These functions are called minimal functions of the State. The welfare state — States which provide additional functions besides security i. Being a police state is a necessary function, and a welfare state is an optional function. The concept of social security or welfare state emerged after WW2. Till then, the welfare state did not come, and all states were Police State. Moreover, the capitalist concept is the minimal State that is the State performing only law, order, regulation and not going for welfare because welfare states give money to the poor at the cost of taxing the rich and productive sectors.
Against this concept Amartya Sen Indian economist who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Economics gave importance to humane governance that takes into consideration human development. Hobbes now further suggests that law should come with the power to punish. Since man is selfish by nature, man will obey the law so long it serves his interest. Man will be tempted to defy the law if it serves his interest better. Hence, fear of punishment is better. Punishment is the source of pain, and a man likes to avoid pain. Hobbes is correct when he suggests that law should come with the power of enforcement. If we look at international law that is voluntary law in nature, we say international law is weak law and not enough to contain anarchy.
So international politics is nothing but a struggle for power like in a hypothetical situation when there was no State. That is why Gandhi was against the State — because according to Gandhi state is not fit according to the principles of ahimsa — State has to resort to violence. Now State has come into existence, all people come together and agree to transfer all of their rights on the condition that each and every person transfers all of their rights to this third party i. It is the contract of all with all. No one is left out. The contract is permanent and irrevocable. Man has become powerless, and the State has become absolute. The State is Leviathan. But there is only one limitation on the State. In case it fails to protect life, people have the right to resist or revolt against the State.
Otherwise, they have no right to resist the state. An absolute State should not be confused with a totalitarian State. An absolute State can have any form of government. It can be a monarchy, parliamentary democracy, or one-party rule. But with an absolute State, we should understand that State is sovereign. All human beings and all their associations, be it Church is under the State. The State is supreme even in religious matters. So whether we look at the constitution of the USA or India — it says we the people — we have created the State — the social contract is like a process of writing of a constitution, and constituent assembly can be understood as where the process is taking place. Constitution is the outcome where everyone is to abide by the contract.
For a person like Hobbes, man will sacrifice freedom for pleasure, as pleasure is more imp than freedom. Hobbes becomes fearful of freedom because more freedom means anarchy a hypothetical situation he talked about when there was no State and more freedom. So he likes less freedom. But what kind of freedom or liberty is Hobbes referring to? Here Hobbes is referring to negative liberty. What is negative liberty? Some people understand liberty in the negative sense — an absence of law — when there is no interference of State, and when State is not there.
Some people understand liberty in a positive sense. They feel liberty is the presence of State, or they think that when State is present, they are freer. Amartya sen is a proponent of positive liberty because he talks about capacity building role performed by the State. The State creates opportunities for our freedom and the development of capabilities. The positive concept came very late. Before the welfare concept, the positive liberty concept was not there. All scholars before that understand liberty in the negative sense. It means you are freer to the extant law that gives you permission. Hobbes understands liberty in the negative sense like others scholars of his time.
Hobbes gives preference to security over liberty — because the life of all people cannot be pushed back into the state of anarchy. He gives the example of water in the vessel. The walls of the vessel stopped the freedom of water to flow. It does not mean that water does not have the capacity to flow. Freedom is the state of being free from interference. Hobbes does not believe that freedom has anything to do with capacity. Similarly, a sick man in the bed is unable to move, which does not mean that freedom of movement is denied. It simply means that a sick man does not have the capacity to move. But gradually capacity and freedom became one.
There is a debate between the definition of liberty. Positive Liberty is on the winning side. This is largely the result of being so close to death since assassinating a man. He is so haunted by death and his powerlessness over inevitability that he wishes to die, just to end his torment. Kyo Gisors is the commander of the revolt and believes that every person should choose his own meaning, not be governed by any external forces. He spends most of the story trying to keep power in the hands of the workers rather than the Kuomintang army and resolving a conflict between himself and his wife, May. He is eventually captured and, in a final act of self-determination, chooses to take his own life with cyanide. Katow had faced execution once before, during the Russian Civil War and was saved at the last moment, which gives him a feeling of psychological immunity.
After witnessing Kyo's death, he watches with a kind of calm detachment as his fellow revolutionaries are taken out one by one, to be thrown alive into the chamber of a steam locomotive waiting outside, intending, when his turn comes, to use his own cyanide capsule. But hearing two young Chinese activists talk with trembling fear of being burned alive, he gives them the cyanide there is only enough for two , himself being left to face the more fearsome death.
He thus dies in an act of self-sacrifice and solidarity with weaker comrades. Baron Clappique is a French merchant, smuggler, and obsessive gambler. He helps Kyo get a shipment of guns through and is later told that Kyo will be killed unless he leaves the city in 48 hours. On the way to warn him, he gets involved with gambling and cannot stop. He considers gambling "suicide without dying". Clappique is very good-humored and always cheerful all the time but suffers inwardly. He later escapes the city dressed as a sailor. This book won the Prix Goncourt French literature award in , and in was named number five in Le Monde's Books of the Century. Since its publication, the novel has an estimated total sale in French of 5 million copies, all editions considered, placing the book as a bestseller in the history of the Prix Goncourt.
The journalist Christopher Hitchens , while noting that Malraux had spent almost no time in China, claimed that the novel "pointed up the increasing weight of Asia in world affairs; it described epic moments of suffering and upheaval, in Shanghai especially it was nearly filmed by Sergei Eisenstein ; and it demonstrated a huge respect for Communism and for Communists while simultaneously evoking the tragedy of a revolution betrayed by Moscow.
This claim is false. Four attempts have been made to adapt Man's Fate as a motion picture. The first involved Fred Zinnemann , who spent three years preparing his film version of Man's Fate before the producing studio, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer , cancelled the production one week before filming was to begin in November Independent producer Sidney Beckerman hired Costa-Gavras to adapt the novel and direct in , but the project was abandoned when the Ministry of Culture of the People's Republic of China denied permission to film in the country. The Italian director Bernardo Bertolucci proposed adapting the novel in the s to the Chinese government; they preferred his alternative proposal, The Last Emperor , a biopic based on the life of the Chinese Emperor Puyi.
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