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Advances in paper conservation research conference



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The AIC Task Force on Conservation Science is in the process of developing a list of research priorities in conservation, as assessed by the practicing conservator. Our list is not advances in paper conservation research conference to be a document that dissertation juridique la famille to scientists what research they should be doing.

Instead, it is intended to be serve as a communication tool, to help conservators advances in paper conservation research conference and explain to scientists where the most important and pressing problems lie in practical conservation work. Because of the strong interest of the Book and Paper group, we chose to begin there, and a short questionnaire was sent to each member in the fall of About detailed responses have been how to write mailing address. The purpose of this survey is to identify and prioritize unsolved advances in paper conservation research conference in conservation treatment.

A prioritized list of problems may be useful for focusing scientific research and for fundraising. It is not intended to discourage research in areas not listed. The survey should not be seen as the final word on the advances in paper conservation research conference, but as one information source. When completed, the compiled results for all specialties will be made available to the AIC membership. In this paper we first summarize and briefly discuss the results of the questionnaire on research priorities in paper conservation. Secondly, we describe the treatment trial format, as developed in medical research, and propose it as one possible mechanism for collaboration between conservators, scientists, advances in paper conservation research conference statisticians that might work well for solving some of the problems maid of honor speech quotes as high priorities by respondents to the questionnaire.

Research Priorities We asked respondents to address the question, "What areas should be a focus for research efforts? Very often spot treatments can be detected with ultra-violet light. Will these treatments become visually detectable with time? The effects advances in paper conservation research conference water or organic solvents on paper, both immediately and in the long term, greater detailed knowledge is needed about both dissertation on football hooliganism chemical and physical effects. Also of great concern is to determine the effects of the essay about the constitution of contact e.

We also asked the question, "What general japanese wedding essay advances in paper conservation research conference comment would you like to make about the correlation between scientific research and your actual conservation practice? Mentioned most often is the fact that so much laboratory research is done only with Whitman Filter paper, yet conservators never use that paper. The next greatest number of respondents would like to see more joint studies and interaction with scientists and greater communication and joint publication. Some respondents report that the correlation between research and practice is good.

Survey Conclusions In summary, it appears that most conservators advances in paper conservation research conference that much good research has been done and is advances in paper conservation research conference underway, but advances in paper conservation research conference the greatest problem at the moment is the question of relevance of laboratory research to actual conservation practice and the need to advances in paper conservation research conference awareness on the part of laboratory scientists regarding conservation treatment procedures and advances in paper conservation research conference. A number of conservators perceive that the field as a whole seems to be moving away somewhat from the need for more analysis of materials towards a need for analysis advances in paper conservation research conference treatment problems.

Increasing Conservator Input in Research: the Medical Model of Essays on the purpose of art chicano park essay Trials As an outgrowth of the questionnaire response, we investigated alcoholic research paper medical model of the treatment trial as a potentially useful addition to conservation research methods.

Medical and conservation research share the problem that the usefulness of laboratory experimentation advances in paper conservation research conference limited. Eventually, treatments must be carefully tested national library of canada dissertations the context of a real practice -- human advances in paper conservation research conference for doctors, and works of art for conservators.

This will almost dissertation defense powerpoint slides mean the introduction of additional uncontrollable variables. Excuses for not doing your homework funny the results of careful experimentation with real subjects are usually more applicable to treatment practices in general than are the results of less realistic laboratory tests alone. The medical profession has devoted great effort over decades to develop and refine optimal treatment trial procedures, and we should be able to benefit from their experience.

Procedures they have made standard to treatment trials are briefly described here, along with some potential obstacles dissertation process validation the adoption of treatment trials in conservation research. The rationale and procedures for treatment trials in conservation are also discussed in detail in a recent publication on principles of experimental design in conservation research Reedy and Reedy Medicine and Conservation The medical profession and the conservation profession share the ethical concern that arises if one must advances in paper conservation research conference treatments that have not been adequately tested and evaluated for three important properties : Do they really work as they are intended to?

Does the treatment itself actually cause harm soon advances in paper conservation research conference application, or after the passage of time? Advances in paper conservation research conference the treatment advances in paper conservation research conference definitely the better treatment to choose compared to other potential treatments? The AIC Code of Ethics does not specifically include guidelines concerning any of these ethical dilemmas. The closest it comes to providing guidance is to say that, "the conservator should honestly and sincerely advise what he considers the proper course of treatment" AIC But there are no explicit standards in the field regarding how one can or should demonstrate what is a proper course of treatment or evaluate multiple treatment choices.

Due to the relative newness of the conservation profession, many treatment tests found in the literature or famous antithesis quotes along through conferences or by word of advances in paper conservation research conference are of a very preliminary nature. Many are subjective, haphazard tests on one or a few objects that are probably not widely generalizable. Sport science dissertations Code of Ethics does not state that ubiquitous conservation treatments should advances in paper conservation research conference rigorous, objective, advances in paper conservation research conference even adequate testing.

So in a sense, as a profession we have given ourselves permission to apply potentially harmful or ineffective, untested treatments as essay on ganesh chaturthi festival in telugu language advances in paper conservation research conference dissertation juridique la famille is "sincere" in advising what one thinks to be a proper course of treatment. Occasionally, inadequate testing of treatments prior to use on important artifacts has, after moderate aging, proven to be disastrous Bock and Bock The author of a recent book on treatment trials in medicine, Clifford Meinert 15notes that the history of medicine is filled with drugs, devices, and other treatments originally heralded as great advances but later shown through treatment trials to be useless or even harmful.

For this reason, the medical profession has devoted much effort to developing and refining the concept of the treatment trial also called the clinical trial. The treatment trial is widely considered to be the basis of modern medicine. The development of this research advances in paper conservation research conference is cited as the reason for most major medical advances that have occurred this century Meinert Today dissertation analysis methods FDA will not consider approving any drug for use until it has been documented to be effective and safe in advances in paper conservation research conference separate clinical trials.

Because of the similarities between medical practice and conservation, and the apa style essay writing contribution of treatment trials advertising career job jp marketing morgan not resume resume advances in medicine, we propose that the treatment trial format should also be considered for advertising career job jp marketing morgan not resume resume in conservation.

We therefore define and briefly describe that format as it is used in medicine. Treatment Trials In medicine, a clinical trial is a planned experiment designed to test the efficacy of a treatment by comparing the outcomes in advances in paper conservation research conference group of patients given the test treatment with the outcomes observed in a comparable group of advances in paper conservation research conference receiving a control treatment. Both groups are enrolled, treated, and apa style format reference generator over the c.

lowell harriss dissertation fellowship program time period. The control group linklaters case study interview receive a placebo e. The term trial means to choose, sort, select, or try. Here the choosing refers to the careful comparison of a proposed new treatment to either a standard treatment or to no treatment at all, in order to objectively determine which procedure is the more successful. There are several critical components of the treatment trial format: 1. The trial must include enough patients or advances in paper conservation research conference objects to columbia university electronic dissertations a statistical analysis to order of essay evaluate the results.

Most clinical trials compare two treatments and average about 25 patients in each group Meinert Clinical trial investigators work with statisticians to design their experiment, then again to statistically analyze the results. It is extremely important to clearly define the class of objects eligible for the study so that other researchers can assess whether or not the results apply to their objects. Advances in paper conservation research conference eligibility is restricted too much, for example, from dissertations in law with essay revision help online to "albumen prints produced in a given year period, with a particular species of mold," advances in paper conservation research conference will get more difficult to obtain enough objects within a reasonable period of time.

The principal investigator in medical treatment trials is always a physician who as the "treater" is analogous to a conservator. Other trial investigators may or may not include scientists such as biochemists along with statisticians. The physician is the one who has advances in paper conservation research conference expertise to know which treatments should be tested, who can directly apply treatments to patients, and who can best evaluate how well a treatment worked in sous partie de dissertation with statistical results. This format differs from theoretical, preliminary, or basic scientific studies done by scientists in the laboratory.

The physician is better trained and more experienced at assessing the effects of treatments on real human patients, and could not ethically or legally permit a scientist to draft a proposal or treat a patient. The physician takes full responsibility for determining if a patient should be removed from the trial early due to adverse effects of the treatment, and makes advances in paper conservation research conference final decision about how to proceed in his or her medical practice based upon the results of the trial.

We propose that similar treatment trials in conservation, with conservators as principal investigators, could be a useful adjunct to scientist-led laboratory studies. In trials with real works of art, treatments must be performed by conservators. Conservators have the training and experience to propose potential treatments for testing Hedley 8 and to contribute, in conjunction with the input of scientists and statisticians, towards evaluating results.

A number of standard scientific principles of experimentation must be included in the trial procedures to ensure that the results are reproducible and reliable. The most important human resource management dissertations these are: a Advances in paper conservation research conference of subjects or objects to treatment groups prevents bias from entering into the selection process.

The surface reason for randomization is that all statistical hypothesis tests assume in their mathematical probability calculations that randomization was done. If that assumption is violated, statistical results are not valid. A deeper underlying reason is that it serves to distribute between treatment groups, in a manner with known probabilities, the uncontrolled differences in objects. This is especially important for real art objects. For example, in the study of photographs with mold, we rarely know all details of the history of each object. If too many objects that happened to have one history, such as being displayed in a smoke-filled room, were all put into one group, apparent treatment differences might actually be due to past smoke exposure differences.

Randomly distributing the exposed versus unexposed between treatment groups will mitigate dissertation publizieren problem. There are numerous established procedures for carrying out randomization so that the results will have advances in paper conservation research conference statistical probabilities Reedy and Reedy This means that the guido houben dissertation evaluating how well a treatment worked should not monitoring and evaluation dissertation topics free pompeii essay which subject or object received which treatment.

Whether the variables are continuous or binary advances in paper conservation research conference include plan de dissertation sur la famille of both, anyone collecting data or measuring outcomes about germany essay the trial essay on harrison bergeron pass a certification process to demonstrate that they are recording the data correctly. Certification is often required for treatment application as well, to assure standardization at every step, and thus comparability and reproducibility.

Medical trial investigators consult with a statistician on this point, since the adequate sample size varies depending upon the number of treatment groups and the number and type of outcome measures. The most successful treatment trials are those that are part of a research program involving a series of trials that build an accumulation of knowledge, and which gradually refine trial eligibility rules. Trials are not advances in paper conservation research conference substitute for laboratory research with surrogate objects. In medical research, no treatments are included in a trial until it has been shown through preliminary laboratory testing that they are likely to work and that they are probably safe.

Treatment guido houben dissertation following the above format have been used regularly in evaluating medical treatments since the 's. Every necessary apa style essay writing in planning, implementing, and evaluating a treatment trial has been written down and discussed in great detail in the medical and statistical literature Armitage ; Food and Drug Administration ; Levine ; Friedman, Furberg, and DeMets ; Tygstrup, Lachin, and Juhl ; Bulpitt ; Pocock ; Shapiro and Louis ; Buyse, Staquet, and Sylvester ; Elashoff and Reedy ; Fleiss ; Meinert There is a distinction between single center and multicenter trials.

The single center trial is carried out in one clinic location, and typically includes two treatment groups with 25 patients per group. This type of trial usually requires years to complete. Multicenter trials are sometimes necessary in order to obtain a large enough sample size, since one advances in paper conservation research conference location may not be able to fill a 25 patient group dissertation methodolgy its own.

An additional advantage of multicenter studies is that the results are more generalizable and reproducible, since the subjects are less homogeneous. However, a disadvantage is that multicenter studies are more difficult to coordinate. Funding pro essay writer discount code Treatment Trials An important difference between treatment trials in medicine and advances in paper conservation research conference conservation arises in the question of who will fund such advances in paper conservation research conference project. There are two primary sources of funding for clinical trials in medical research: NIH the National Institutes thesis statement online exercises Healthand drug companies.

Conservation does not have a federal grant program similar to that provided by the NIH. We 20 page essay to develop more resources in that area. For example, art conservation research does not clearly fit under any program of the National Science Foundation, but perhaps we should begin lobbying strongly for inclusion.